Difference between revisions of "Smoke Creek Desert"

From Black Rock Desert Nevada wiki
Jump to navigationJump to search
m (Text replacement - "http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:" to "https://edits.nationalmap.gov/apps/gaz-domestic/public/summary/")
 
(12 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
The "Smoke Creek Desert" is roughly the same elevation and consistency as the Black Rock Desert, but is largely undriveable.  It is located west and south of [[Gerlach]] and extends almost to [[Pyramid Lake]].


== Geophysical Investigations of the Smoke Creek Desert and their Geologic Implications, Northwest Nevada and Northeast California ==
The railroad skirts the eastern edge of the playa, and the Smoke Creek Road skirts the western edge.


http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1176/ pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1176/
In 1877, Thomas W. Symons traveled through the area: "Leaving Surprise Valley we set out going through the old outlet of the lake by the main road to Reno and separating at Clark's about 10 miles from the valley two courses were run to the Granite Mountain which was occupied as our last triangulation station October 26; A four days march from Granite Mountain brought us to Susanville passing by Wall Springs, Murphy's Salt Works, Smoke Creek, and Shafer's. Mr Murphy has built up quite an industry in the desert. On boring a few feet into the soil water is found which is a fully saturated solution of salt and which by means of a windmill he pumps into inclosed spaces of the ground and there it is evaporated and leaves the salt which is very pure and of excellent quality. From one gallon of water he gets two pounds and ten ounces of salt. He was extending his works so as to make more salt as he is at present unable to supply the demand."<ref> Thomas W. Symons, "[https://books.google.com/books?id=ZWMtAAAAIAAJ&dq=Symons%201878%20executive%20report&pg=PA118#v=snippet&q=%22Black%20Rock%22&f=false Executive and Descriptive Report of Lieutenant Thomas W. Symons Corp of Engineers on the operations of Party No 1 California Section Field Season of 1877]," p. 118, 1878.</ref>


U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1176 Version 1.0
== See Also ==
* [[Bonham Ranch]]
* [[Buffalo Meadows]]
* [[Camp Smoke Creek]]
* [[Deep Hole]]
* [[Sand Pass]]
* [[Smoke Creek Station]]
* [[Wall Spring]]


By David A. Ponce, Jonathan M.G. Glen, and Janet E. Tilden
== References ==
<references/>


The Smoke Creek Desert is a large basin about 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt, a physiographic region defined by diverse topographic expression consisting of northweststriking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic and geophysical framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrogeology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geophysical effort was undertaken to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to basement.
== External Resources ==


In the northernmost parts of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, along Squaw Creek Valley, geophysical data indicate that the basin is shallow and that granitic rocks are buried at shallow depths throughout the valley. These granitic rocks are faulted and fractured and presumably permeable, and thus may influence ground-water resources in this area.
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoke_Creek_Desert Wikipedia]


The Smoke Creek Desert basin itself is composed of three large oval sub-basins, all of which reach depths to basement of up to about 2 km (1.2 mi). In the central and southern parts of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, magnetic anomalies form three separate and narrow EW-striking features. These features consist of high-amplitude short-wavelength magnetic anomalies and probably reflect Tertiary basalt buried at shallow depth. In the central part of the Smoke Creek Desert basin a prominent EW-striking gravity and magnetic prominence extends from the western margin of the basin to the central part of the basin. Along this ridge, probably composed of Tertiary basalt, overlying unconsolidated basin-fill deposits are relatively thin (< 400 m).
* John Evanoff, "[http://visitreno.com/evanoff/feb-07.php Deep Hole and Sand Pass]," February, 2007.


The central part of the Smoke Creek Desert basin is also characterized by the Mid-valley fault, a continuous geologic and geophysical feature striking NS and at least 18-km long, possibly connecting with faults mapped in the Terraced Hills and continuing southward to Pyramid Lake. The Mid-valley fault may represent a lateral (east-west) barrier to ground-water flow. In addition, the Mid-valley fault may also be a conduit for along-strike (north-south) ground-water flow, channeling flow to the southernmost parts of the basin and the discharge areas north of Sand Pass.
* Jeffrey D. Johnson, "[http://www.juliacbulette.com/?p=108 Julia’s Unequivocal Nevada Klampout #32]" (2011). Reproduced as [http://blackrockdesert.org/friends/metric/ecv-history-smoke-creek-desert An ECV History of the Smoke Creek Desert]


== Gravity, Magnetic, and Physical Property Data in the Smoke Creek Desert Area, Northwest Nevada ==
* [http://www.militarymuseum.org/2dCavVC.html Records of California Men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 To 1867] The California Military Museum


http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1197/ pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1197/
* P.A. Glancy and F.E. Rush. "[http://images.water.nv.gov/images/publications/recon%20reports/rpt44-smoke_creek_san_emidio.pdf Water-resources appraisal of Smoke Creek–San Emidio Desert, Nevada and California]." Water Resources Reconnaissance Series Report 44. 1968 (Cover includes image of the Smoke Creek Desert.  Inside photo of the "deserted railroad town of Smoke Creek")


U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1197 Version 1.0
* Israel Cook Russell, "[http://books.google.com/books?id=xrbkAAAAMAAJ&lpg=PA285&ots=sSKpGAxXvN&dq=Buffalo%20salt%20works%20nevada&pg=PA232#v=onepage&q=Buffalo%20salt%20works%20nevada&f=false Sketch of the geological history of Lake Lahontan, a Quaternary lake of northwestern Nevada]," 1885


By Janet E. Tilden, David A. Ponce, Jonathan M.G. Glen, Bruce A Chuchel, Kira Tushman, and Alison Duvall
* Colonel George Ruhlen, "[http://nsla.nevadaculture.org/statepubs/epubs/210777-1964-3-4Cent.pdf Early Nevada Forts,]" p. 55, Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Volume VII, Number 3-4, 1964. [[Camp Smoke Creek]] (1862-1866), Camp Pollock (p. 47)
** [https://edits.nationalmap.gov/apps/gaz-domestic/public/summary/858594 GNIS] Camp Smoke Creek: temporary military camp and depot, 1862-1863
*** Citation: "Carlson, Helen S., 'Nevada Place Names, A Geographical Dictionary,' Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press, 1974, 282 pp. Reference work giving historical background on place names in Nevada. p219"
*** Alternate: Smoke Creek Depot
**** Citation: "U.S. Department of the Interior, General Land Office 'State of Nevada.' New York: Julius Bien, 1879. Scale 1 inch=16 miles. Compiled from the official records of the GLO and other sources, by C. Roeser, Principal Draughtsman, GLO."
** [https://edits.nationalmap.gov/apps/gaz-domestic/public/summary/857320 GNIS]  Camp Pollock: Temporary military camp, 1864
*** Citation: "Carlson, Helen S., 'Nevada Place Names, A Geographical Dictionary,' Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press, 1974, 282 pp. Reference work giving historical background on place names in Nevada. p193"


The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt, a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement.
== Geologic ==


In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km.
* [[Gravity, Magnetic, and Physical Property Data in the Smoke Creek Desert Area, Northwest Nevada]]
* [[Geophysical Investigations of the Smoke Creek Desert and their Geologic Implications, Northwest Nevada and Northeast California]]
* [http://www.nbmg.unr.edu/geothermal/site.php?sid=Smoke%20Creek%20Desert Geothermal Springs in the Smoke Creek Desert] (UNR)


Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.
[[Category:Smoke Creek Desert]]
[[Category:Wikipedia articles]]

Latest revision as of 21:06, 28 December 2021

The "Smoke Creek Desert" is roughly the same elevation and consistency as the Black Rock Desert, but is largely undriveable. It is located west and south of Gerlach and extends almost to Pyramid Lake.

The railroad skirts the eastern edge of the playa, and the Smoke Creek Road skirts the western edge.

In 1877, Thomas W. Symons traveled through the area: "Leaving Surprise Valley we set out going through the old outlet of the lake by the main road to Reno and separating at Clark's about 10 miles from the valley two courses were run to the Granite Mountain which was occupied as our last triangulation station October 26; A four days march from Granite Mountain brought us to Susanville passing by Wall Springs, Murphy's Salt Works, Smoke Creek, and Shafer's. Mr Murphy has built up quite an industry in the desert. On boring a few feet into the soil water is found which is a fully saturated solution of salt and which by means of a windmill he pumps into inclosed spaces of the ground and there it is evaporated and leaves the salt which is very pure and of excellent quality. From one gallon of water he gets two pounds and ten ounces of salt. He was extending his works so as to make more salt as he is at present unable to supply the demand."[1]

See Also

References

External Resources

  • Colonel George Ruhlen, "Early Nevada Forts," p. 55, Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Volume VII, Number 3-4, 1964. Camp Smoke Creek (1862-1866), Camp Pollock (p. 47)
    • GNIS Camp Smoke Creek: temporary military camp and depot, 1862-1863
      • Citation: "Carlson, Helen S., 'Nevada Place Names, A Geographical Dictionary,' Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press, 1974, 282 pp. Reference work giving historical background on place names in Nevada. p219"
      • Alternate: Smoke Creek Depot
        • Citation: "U.S. Department of the Interior, General Land Office 'State of Nevada.' New York: Julius Bien, 1879. Scale 1 inch=16 miles. Compiled from the official records of the GLO and other sources, by C. Roeser, Principal Draughtsman, GLO."
    • GNIS Camp Pollock: Temporary military camp, 1864
      • Citation: "Carlson, Helen S., 'Nevada Place Names, A Geographical Dictionary,' Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press, 1974, 282 pp. Reference work giving historical background on place names in Nevada. p193"

Geologic